Zionist Colonization (1882-1948)
Zionist immigration waves to Palestine :
– First wave ( 1882 – 1903 )
Nearly 25 thousands immigrants entered Palestine in this wave, most of them were from the Jews of Romania and Russia and it was funded by some associations as ” Zion Lovers” and ” Bilu” movement along with other colonial personalities and Britain services.
– Second wave ( 1919- 1923)
About 40 thousand new immigrants entered, most of them came from Russia and Romania, they were mainly ” Young adventures” recruited by the colonial and Zionist services. With the end of the second immigration wave, the number of the immigrant Jews reached about 85 thousands, as the beginning of World War I. They had a total land area of 418 thousand acres, of which 44 agricultural colony.
- Third wave ( 1919-1923)
The number of immigrants reached to 35 thousands, with a range of eight thousand immigrant per year, where most of them came from Russia, Romania and Poland, in addition to few numbers came from Germany and US.
– Fourth wave ( 1924-1932)
About 89 thousand immigrants entered Palestine in this wave, many of them were made up of middle-class families, especially from Poland, they came with their small share capitals and established small businesses. The peak of the immigration flow was in 1925, where about 33 thousand entered compared to other 13 thousand in 1924. Then the number dropped again to about 13 thousand in 1926. In 1927, the immigration began to recede because of the economic difficulties in the country at that time, immigrants’ number slipped down to three thousands, then two thousand only in 1928.
At the end of this stage, the total number of Jews who had entered Palestine was about 175 thousands, 136 thousands of them settled in 19 civilian colony and the rest distributed to live in about 110 agricultural colony.
- Fifth wave ( 1933- 1939)
The number of Jewish immigrants in this wave was about 215 thousands, most of them came from the countries of central Europe, after Nazis’ arrival to power, so about 45 thousand emigrated during this period only.
- Sixth wave ( 1940-1948)
During the World War I I, about 55 thousand Jewish immigrants came to Palestine illegally, where the British Navy was responsible to guide their ships and provide them with water, supplies and fuel and guide them to the Palestinian coasts, as well as about 120 thousand Jews entered Palestine between 1940-1948. With the end of the British Mandate, the number of immigrant Jews recorded 625 thousands, which was equivalent to one-third of the country population.
|Place they came from||Immigrants’ number||Period||Immigration Wave|
|Russia-Poland- Romania||25000||1880 – 1903||First Wave|
|Russia – Eastern Europe||34000||1904- 1914||Second Wave|
|Baltic sea regions – Russia – Poland||35100||1919- 1923||Third Wave|
|Poland- Romania- Middle East||78898||1924 – 1931||Fourth Wave|
|Germany- Western Europe- Poland||224784||1932- 1939||Fifth Wave|
|Central Europe- Balkans – Poland- Middle East||118300||1940- 1948||Sixth Wave|
Immigration after the establishment of Israel ( 1967-1948) :
After taking over Palestine in 1948 and expelling its people from their homeland, the Zionist movement exerted great efforts to facilitate the Jewish immigration to Palestine. They issued the ” Law of Return” in 1950, which states : ” Every Jew has the right to return to the homeland as a returned Jew and the immigration to be with an immigrant visa ” . Also, the law of Israeli nationality issued in 1952, which states : ” Every Jew immigrates to Israel has
the right to obtain the Israeli identity and citizenship once he enters the country “. As well as the Jewish Agency encouraging for the immigration and organizing the immigrants affairs, what helped to increase the immigration to Palestine.
Mohammed Al Nahal : British Mandate policy on the Arab territories of Palestine – Occupied Palestine publications, Beirut, i 2.1981 m.
Translation: Maram Humeid