Palestine during the Umayyad Era
Umayyad era began since Muslims pledged allegiance to Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, “God bless them,” in 41 AH/661 AD, a year known in the Islamic history as “the year of Al Jam’aa” (Year of unity) when Al Hassan gave the rule for the caliphate to Muawiyah. The capital moved from Madinah to Damascus and this led to giving the Levant, and Jerusalem in particular, a great care by the Umayyads. The interest in erecting more structures increased. For instance, the dome of the rock was built by the Umayyads. Also, many schools and Alpemmarstanat(hospitals) were constructed in the Temple Mount area.
As a result of the many conflicts which were taking place, many areas gave their allegiance to Abdullah Ibn al-Zubayr, except Jordan and Palestine, which were led by Hassan bin Malik al-Kalbi, who was known by his allegiance to the Umayyads. However, a local leader called Nael bin Qais Alghthami announced allegiance to al-Zubayr and expelled the leader of Palestine to Jordan. This case continued until Marwan ibn al-Hakam came and reunited the regions under the Umayyad dynasty.
Also, there were many Palestinian leaders who participated in the Islamic conquests; one of them the extraordinary leader Musa Bin Nusair who was the ruler of Morocco, and later the chief Commander of the armies which conquered Andalusia and became its ruler after then. Bin Nusair had a great position in the courts of the Caliph Suleiman Ibn Abdul Malik, who assigned him as a consultant.
The rule of the Umayyad lasted until the year 132 AH/750 AD, until the peiod of Caliph Marwan II, when the Abbasids were able to take control after the Abbasid revolution against the Umayyads.
Prepared by: Alaa Hamada. Translation: Taghreed Al Sharawi